Equine Infectious Anemia (Coggins)
The Coggins test (agar immunodiffusion) is a sensitive diagnostic test for equine infectious anemia developed by Dr. Leroy Coggins in the 1970s.
Currently, the USA does not have an eradication program due to the low rate of incidence, however many states require a negative Coggins test for interstate travel. In addition, most horse shows and events require a negative Coggins test. Most countries require a negative test result before allowing an imported horse into the country.
A Coggins test should be done on an annual basis. Tests every 6 months are recommended if there is increased traveling.
Quantitive Fecal Egg Counts (for targeted deworming programs)
Fecal Egg Count is a process where we take a sample of fresh dung and carefully take a precise amount of the material to be used under a microscope to view the egg count. We use this process to aide in the fight against parasites.
By performing fecal egg counts and conducting follow-up tests you begin to draw a more accurate picture of the parasite management issues on your property, and among your horses. Repeated egg counts will quickly help you identify the horses most susceptible to parasites. Follow-up tests will show whether the drench you are using is proving effective, and will help you fully evaluate your overall drenching program.
IgG Testing for Foals and Colostral IgG
Foal IgG Test
Ten to twelve hours after birth, Nandi will perform a neonatal exam and a blood sample will be drawn from the foal. The sample is used for the IgG test which calculates the passive transfer level of maternal antibodies passed from your mare to her foal. Low levels may lead to infection, disease, and increased death rates.
Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals. They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so any antibodies that they need have to be ingested. This oral transfer of immunity can occur because the newborn’s stomach is porous. This means that large proteins (such as antibodies) can pass through the stomach wall. The newborn animal must receive colostrum within 6 hours of being born for maximal transfer of antibodies to occur. The stomach wall remains somewhat open up to 24 hours of age, but transfer is more limited.
Uterine Culture Specimens
At Nandi, we use an uterine culture to determine if one or more microorganisms are present or if the mare is ‘clean’ (i.e. free of organisms). Cultures may be performed as part of a breeding examination, prior to the onset of the breeding season, during the breeding season, or at the end of the breeding season. An important reason for culturing a mare prior to breeding is that the odds are very low that a mare will become pregnant or stay pregnant with an active uterine infection.
Endometrial Biopsy Interpretation
It is known that Mares decline in fertility with advancing age; even mares within the window of optimal reproduction sometime suffer from reduced fertility. An important contributor to these problems is endometrial disease. Considering that a major goal of equine breeding operations is to enhance reproductive efficiency, diagnosing and treating endometritis and other forms of endometrial disease are of major importance at Nandi Veterinary Associates..
Endometrial biopsy involves passing a long forceps through the cervix into the uterine cavity and taking small pieces of endometrial tissue for histopathologic examination. Typically, the uterine body, each horn, and any areas detected to be abnormal are biopsied. The tissue samples are preserved in fixative, processed, and sections placed on glass slides for microscopic examination. The technique is easily performed and relatively safe. Sedation is not routinely required.
Nandi Veterinary Associates offers a variety of Hematology services to our clients. Below are some services that we offer our clients.
White Blood Cell Count(WBC Count)
A WBC count is a test to measure the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in the blood.
Packed Cell Volume (PCV)
The PCV, also known as the hematocrit, is one of the most common blood test performed. PCV is the percentage of RBC(red blood cells) in the blood.
Total Protein(Plasma Protein)
After the hematocrit is read, the plasma in the capillary tube is used to measure the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood.
Serum Protein is a biochemical test for measuring the total amount of protein in blood plasma or serum.
Fibrinogen is important in blood clotting and the inflammatory cascade. If blood is allowed to clot, the clotting factors are removed from the plasma and the remaining fluid portion of the blood is called serum.